What is EVA? Definition

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What is EVA? Definition

Economic Value Added (EVA) is a financial performance method to calculate the true economic profit of a corporation. EVA can be calculated as Net Operating Profit After Tax minus a charge for the opportunity cost of the capital invested.

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EVA ( © / ™ Stern Stewart & Co.) is an estimate of the amount that earnings differ from the required minimum rate of return (against comparable risk) for shareholders or lenders. The difference can be both a surplus or a shortage.

EVA compared with MVA

Unlike Market-based measurements, such as MVA, EVA can be calculated for a divisional (Strategic Business Unit) level.

Unlike Equities measurements, EVA is a flow and can be used for performance evaluation over time.

EVA compared with EBIT and EPS

Unlike accounting profit, such as EBIT, Net Income and EPS, EVA is economic and is based on the idea that a company must cover both the operating costs AND the capital costs.

Calculation of EVA. Formula

The basic formula for calculating EVA is:

      Net Sales

–     Operating Expenses

——————————————————

      Operating Profit (EBIT)

–     Taxes

——————————————————

      Net Operating Profit After Tax (NOPAT)

–     Capital Charges (Invested Capital x Cost of Capital)

——————————————————

      Economic Value Added (EVA)

By taking all capital costs into account, including the cost of equity, EVA shows the financial amount of wealth a business has created or destroyed in a reporting period. In other words, EVA is profit in the way that shareholders define it. If the shareholders expect, say, a 10% return on their investment, they earn money only to the extent that their share of the NOPAT exceeds 10% of equity capital. Everything before that just builds up to the minimum acceptable compensation for investing in a risky enterprise.

What is EVA? Definition

USAGE of the EVA method: Aligning decisions with shareholder wealth

EVA was developed to help managers to incorporate two basic principles of finance into their decision making:

  1. The primary financial objective of any company should be to maximize the wealth of its shareholders.
  2. The value of a company depends on the extent to which investors expect that future profits will differ from the cost of capital. By definition, a sustained increase in EVA will result in an increase in the market value of a company. This approach has proved valid and effective for many types of organizations. This is because the level of EVA isn’t what really matters. Current performance already is reflected in share prices. It is the (continuous) improvement in EVA that brings (continuous) increases in shareholder wealth.

Some specific usages of EVA include:

  • To set organizational goals.
  • Performance measurement.
  • Determining of bonuses.
  • Communication with shareholders and investors.
  • Motivation of managers.
  • Capital budgeting.
  • Corporate valuation.
  • Analyzing equities.

Economic value added

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In corporate financeeconomic value added (EVA) is an estimate of a firm’s economic profit, or the value created in excess of the required return of the company’sshareholders. EVA is the net profit less the equity cost of the firm’s capital. The idea is that value is created when the return on the firm’s economic capital employed exceeds the cost of that capital. This amount can be determined by making adjustments to GAAP accounting. There are potentially over 160 adjustments but in practice only several key ones are made, depending on the company and its industry. EVA is a service mark of Stern Value Management.[1]

Calculation[edit]

EVA is net operating profit after taxes (or NOPAT) less a capital charge, the latter being the product of the cost of capital and the economic capital. The basic formula is:

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}{\text{EVA}}&=({\text{ROIC}}-{\text{WACC}})\cdot ({\text{total assets}}-{\text{current liability}})\\[8pt]&={\text{NOPAT}}-{\text{WACC}}\cdot ({\text{total assets}}-{\text{current liability}})\end{aligned}}}

where:

  • {\displaystyle {\text{ROIC}}={\frac {\text{NOPAT}}{{\text{total assets}}-{\text{current liability}}}}}, is the return on invested capital;
  • {\displaystyle ({\text{WACC}})\,} is the weighted average cost of capital (WACC);
  • {\displaystyle ({\text{total assets}}-{\text{current liability}})\,} is the economic capital employed (total assets − current liability);
  • NOPAT is the net operating profit after tax, with adjustments and translations, generally for the amortization of goodwill, the capitalization of brand advertising and other non-cash items.

EVA calculation:

EVA = net operating profit after taxes – a capital charge [the residual income method]

therefore EVA = NOPAT – (c × capital), or alternatively

EVA = (r × capital) – (c × capital) so that
EVA = (r − c) × capital [the spread method, or excess return method]

where

r = rate of return, and
c = cost of capital, or the weighted average cost of capital (WACC).

NOPAT is profits derived from a company’s operations after cash taxes but before financing costs and non-cash bookkeeping entries. It is the total pool of profits available to provide a cash return to those who provide capital to the firm.

Capital is the amount of cash invested in the business, net of depreciation. It can be calculated as the sum of interest-bearing debt and equity or as the sum of net assets less non-interest-bearing current liabilities (NIBCLs).

The capital charge is the cash flow required to compensate investors for the riskiness of the business given the amount of economic capital invested.

The cost of capital is the minimum rate of return on capital required to compensate investors (debt and equity) for bearing risk, their opportunity cost.

Another perspective on EVA can be gained by looking at a firm’s return on net assets (RONA). RONA is a ratio that is calculated by dividing a firm’s NOPAT by the amount of capital it employs (RONA = NOPAT/Capital) after making the necessary adjustments of the data reported by a conventional financial accounting system.

EVA = (RONA – required minimum return) × net investments

If RONA is above the threshold rate, EVA is positive.

Comparison with other approaches[edit]

Other approaches along similar lines include residual income valuation (RI) and residual cash flow. Although EVA is similar to residual income, under some definitions there may be minor technical differences between EVA and RI (for example, adjustments that might be made to NOPAT before it is suitable for the formula below). Residual cash flow is another, much older term for economic profit. In all three cases, money cost of capital refers to the amount of money rather than the proportional cost (% cost of capital); at the same time, the adjustments to NOPAT are unique to EVA.

Although in concept, these approaches are in a sense nothing more than the traditional, commonsense idea of “profit”, the utility of having a more precise term such as EVA is that it makes a clear separation from dubious accounting adjustments that have enabled businesses such as Enron to report profits while actually approaching insolvency.

Other measures of shareholder value include:

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